Rug Weaving Techniques Comparison

Not all rugs on the market are woven in the same ways or using similar techniques. Indeed, there are a great variety of ways to create rugs in different cultures and countries. These methods can vary greatly in terms of labor and time involved, which determine the appearance and price of the finished products. In the following comparison of techniques used to create shaggy rugs Australia, we will guide you through some of the most commonly used weaving methods.


This is the most labor-intensive weaving technique that can only be done by specially-trained artisans. Starting from a map, skilled weavers will tie separate knots to form one row of the rug at a time. The quality will be determined by the KPSI metric, or knots per square inch. The higher the KPSI, the higher skill an artisan should have. You can identify hand-knotted rugs easily with visible knots which are uneven on their back.


In this technique, a tufting gun is used to punch separate yarn tufts into a pre-made fabric. This tool is responsible for hooking and pulling yarn through the fabric’s backing to create piles or loops. Compared to hand-knotted rugs, this process is often less labor- and skill-intensive, allowing them to be made in a short period of time. Hand-tufted rugs often feature loop and cut or cut pile.


Hand-loomed rugs often feature a medium to low pile with an added canvas backing. During the weaving process, the artisan will make them by hand with a loom. This tool helps hold the vertical or warm threads in place and allows for the interweaving of the horizontal element, also known as weft. There are many types of looms to make various forms of rugs. These include border rugs, naturals, shag, or felted textures.

rug weaving tutorial

Flat weaving

As the name implies, this type of rug is often flat without a pile. They are typically woven on a loom instead of tufted or knotted. With only weft and warp threads, flat-weave rugs aren’t as thick as other forms. In addition, they are usually reversible with patterns on both sides. Due to their lightweight construction, you often need a rug pad to keep flat-weave units in place.

Slit weaving

This is a very popular weaving technique as it creates reversible rugs with geometric or diagonal patterns on both sides. The process is done by leaving a small gap between two weft threads with different colors. This leads to a significant contrast on the unit. When weaving on a slit-weave rug, the weaver will finish a color block before turning to the next one in the pattern.


This is another flat-weave technique which includes two wefts with different colors. They come from opposite directions and meet at a warp thread. This helps create a border between them with softer and smoother color contrast. Compared to split-weave rugs, dovetailing units come with greater strength on the color segments.

Rug weaving is both a crafting science and an art, requiring perfect attention to detail from the weavers. To produce a quality finished product, it takes a lot of time and effort. Each weaving technique has its own pros and cons, and the best one will depend on the ultimate use-purpose of the rug being designed, in terms of both practicality and aesthetics.